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Amur river

Amur river
Length: 2824 km
Area of ​​the pool: 1 855 000 km2

Река Амур — река на Дальнем Востоке в Восточной Азии. Протекает по территории России и границе России и Китая.

Geographical position

The basin of the Amur River is located in the temperate latitudes of East Asia. Within the Amur basin there are four physical and geographical zones: forest zone (with sub-zones of coniferous-broadleaf forests, middle and southern taiga), forest-steppe, steppe and semidesert (with the northern subzone of semi-deserts and a subzone of dry steppes). The annual precipitation varies from 250-300 millimeters in the most arid south-western part of the Amur basin and up to 750 millimeters in the southeastern part of the Sikhote-Alin range.

Amur river

Амур образуется слиянием рек Шилка и Аргунь (за начало реки принято считать восточную оконечность острова Безумный). В научно-популярной прессе присутствует также мнение, согласно которому истоком реки можно принять безымянный ручей, впадающий в реку Онон, который, сливаясь с рекой Ингода, образует реку Шилка, которая, сливаясь с рекой Аргунь, и образует собственно Амур. Длина реки — 2824 километров от места слияния рек Шилка и Аргунь до его впадения в Амурский лиман. Относительно принадлежности Амурского лимана к Сахалинскому заливу и, следовательно, Sea of ​​Okhotsk, Or to the Tatar Strait and, accordingly, to The Sea of ​​Japan, The opinions of different authors differ (TSB refers the Amur estuary to the Tatar Strait and the Sea of ​​Japan). TSB indicates that the mouth of the Amur is considered to be the point of the capes Ozerpah and Prong at the outlet of the Amur in the Amur estuary. In the Onon-Shilka-Amur system, the length of the Amur is 4279 kilometers. From the source of Hailar - Argun and to the mouth - 4049 kilometers. From the source of the Kerulen River, through the Argun and to the mouth of the 5052 km. The basin of the Amur River is located within three states - Russia (995 thousand km2, около 54 % территории), также Китая (44,2 %) и Монголии (1,8 %). Российский сектор бассейна реки, в свою очередь может быть разделён на две неравные части — сибирскую, к которой относятся соответствующие участки бассейнов рек Шилка и Аргунь, и дальневосточную, в пределах которой расположена по существу вся долина Амура — левобережье верхнего и среднего Амура и весь нижний Амур, с соответствующими этим участкам бассейнами притоков.

Amur river
Hydrology of the river

By the area of ​​the basin (1855 thousand km2) Амур занимает четвёртое место среди рек России (после Yenisei, Obi и Lena) And the tenth place among the rivers of the world. Average water discharge in the Komsomolsk-on-Amur area 9819 m3/ S, in the mouth area - 11 400 m3/from. According to the peculiarities of the valley, the river is divided into three main sections: the upper Amur (up to the mouth of the Zeya River, 883 kilometers), the current speed of 5,3 km / h, the average Amur (from the mouth of the Zeya River to the mouth of the Ussuri River, 975 kilometers), the current speed of 5,5 km / H and the lower Amur (from the mouth of the Ussuri River to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, 966 kilometers), the current speed is 4,2 km / h. The most important feature of the Amur hydrological regime is significant fluctuations in the water level, caused almost exclusively by summer-autumn monsoon rains, which constitute up to 75% of annual runoff. Fluctuations in the level of the river bed relative to the intergeneration are from 10-15 meters in the upper and middle and up to 6-8 in the lower Cupid. At the same time, during the most severe downpours, spills on the middle and lower Amur can reach 10-25 kilometers and stay up to 70 days. After the construction of waterworks on the main tributaries of Zeya, Bureya and Sungari, summer-autumn floods on the river are less pronounced and in the lower reaches of the river the level changes are 3-4 m.


The animal and plant world of the Amur basin is diverse. There are more than 5000 species of vascular plants, about 400 species of birds, more than 70 species of mammals, including the Amur tiger. In the basin of the great river, there are more than 130 species of freshwater fish. It is here that the largest sturgeon of the world, the endemic of the Amur, Kaluga, whose weight can exceed a ton, still meets.

Amur river

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