Coat of arms of the Russian Federation


Latin name: Lutra lutra
Family: Cunyi

The otter, or the common otter, or the river otter, or the pestle, is the species of predatory mammals of the family of cunts, leading a semi-aquatic life; One of the three species of the otter species (Lutra). In the literature, the word "otter" usually refers to this species. According to statistics in the territory of Russia in 2006, the otter population was about 15 thousand individuals. In America, in Alaska and the state of Washington, as well as Colombia, about 70 thousand, 2,5 thousand off the coast of California and about ten - in Japan. In total there are approximately 88 thousand otters in the world that is only a fifth of the mid-eighteenth century.


Otter is a large beast with an elongated, flexible body of a streamlined shape. The length of the body is 55-95 cm, the tail is 26-55 cm, the mass is 6-10 kg. Paws short, with swimming membranes. The tail is muscular, not fluffy. Coloring of fur: from above dark brown, from below light, silvery. The coarse hair is coarse, but the underarm is very thick and tender. The structure of her body is adapted for swimming under water: a flat head, short paws, a long tail and not wetting fur.


The most widespread representative of the subfamily Otter. It occurs in a vast area that covers almost the whole of Europe (except the Netherlands and Switzerland), Asia (except the Arabian Peninsula) and North Africa. In Russia there is no only in the Far North.


Выдра ведёт полуводный образ жизни, прекрасно плавая, ныряя и добывая себе пищу в воде. Обитает она преимущественно в лесных реках, богатых рыбой, реже — в озёрах и прудах. Встречается на морском побережье. Предпочитает реки с омутами, с незамерзающими зимой быстринами, с подмытыми водой, захламлёнными буреломом берегами, где много надёжных убежищ и мест для устройства нор. Иногда устраивает свои логова в пещерах или, наподобие гнёзда, в зарослях у воды. Входные отверстия её нор открываются под водой. Охотничьи угодья одной выдры летом составляют участок реки длиной от 2 до 18 км и около 100 м вглубь прибрежной зоны. Зимой при истощении запасов рыбы и замерзания полыней она вынуждена кочевать, иногда пересекая напрямик высокие водоразделы. При этом со склонов выдра спускается, скатываясь вниз на брюхе и оставляя характерный след в виде желоба. По льду и снегу она проходит в сутки до 15—20 км. Питается выдра преимущественно рыбой (сазаном, щукой, форелью, плотвой, бычками), причём предпочитает мелкую рыбу. Зимой поедает лягушек, довольно регулярно — личинок ручейников. Летом, кроме рыбы, ловит водяных полёвок и других грызунов; местами систематически охотится на куликов и уток.


It inhabits practically the entire territory of the former USSR. It inhabits freshwater reservoirs of all landscapes, and it is found in the Far East as well. coast. Prefers rivers with clear water, fast current, rocky channel and shores with a large number of shelters. Polygam. It leads a territorial way of life. Between the neighboring animals, relations of dominance-subordination are possible. IL. The habitat is from 4-12 to 300 ha. There are several permanent burrows and temporary shelters on the site. In communication, olfactory (smell marks) and acoustic signals are of great importance. Nora arranges in the basal cavities. Adapted to a semi-aquatic lifestyle. The basis of nutrition - freshwater fish, eats frogs, birds and small water mammals. It can reproduce throughout the year. In Russia, the gon is usually from February to August, pupping in May-October. Pregnancy about 60 days. The female can be licensed twice a year. In litter is usually 2-3 cub. Weight of newborn 77-133 g for body length 140-180 mm. Cubs are born blind, with closed auditory canals, without teeth. Seen on 30 day. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of about 2,5 years.


Otters are single animals. Mating, depending on climatic conditions, occurs in the spring (March-April) or almost all the year round (in England). The otters are mated in the water. Pregnancy - with a latency period of up to 270 days; The gestation period itself is only 63 days. In the brood, usually 2-4 blind cubs. Sexual maturity of otters occurs in the second to third year.


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