The Amur River is a river in the Far East in East Asia. It flows through Russia and the border of Russia and China.Geographical position
The basin of the Amur River is located in the temperate latitudes of East Asia. Within the Amur basin there are four physical and geographical zones: forest zone (with sub-zones of coniferous-broadleaf forests, middle and southern taiga), forest-steppe, steppe and semidesert (with the northern subzone of semi-deserts and a subzone of dry steppes). The annual precipitation varies from 250-300 millimeters in the most arid south-western part of the Amur basin and up to 750 millimeters in the southeastern part of the Sikhote-Alin range.
Cupid is formed by the confluence of the rivers Shilka and Argun (for the beginning of the river it is considered to be the eastern extremity of the Island of Madness). In the popular science press there is also an opinion according to which the source of the river can be taken by a nameless stream flowing into the Onon River, which, merging with the river Ingoda, forms the Shilka River, which, merging with the Argun River, forms the Amur itself. The length of the river is 2824 kilometers from the confluence of the Shilka and Argun rivers to its confluence into the Amur estuary. Regarding the Amur estuary belonging to the Sakhalin Bay and, consequently, Sea of Okhotsk, Or to the Tatar Strait and, accordingly, to The Sea of Japan, The opinions of different authors differ (TSB refers the Amur estuary to the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan). TSB indicates that the mouth of the Amur is considered to be the point of the capes Ozerpah and Prong at the outlet of the Amur in the Amur estuary. In the Onon-Shilka-Amur system, the length of the Amur is 4279 kilometers. From the source of Hailar - Argun and to the mouth - 4049 kilometers. From the source of the Kerulen River, through the Argun and to the mouth of the 5052 km. The basin of the Amur River is located within three states - Russia (995 thousand km2, About 54% of the territory), also China (44,2%) and Mongolia (1,8%). The Russian sector of the river basin, in turn, can be divided into two unequal parts - the Siberian one, which includes the corresponding sections of the Shilka and Argun basins, and the Far East, within which the entire Amur valley is located - the left bank of the upper and middle Amur and the entire lower Amur, with the corresponding basins of tributaries.
Hydrology of the river
By the area of the basin (1855 thousand km2) Cupid takes the fourth place among the rivers of Russia (after Yenisei, Obi и Lena) And the tenth place among the rivers of the world. Average water discharge in the Komsomolsk-on-Amur area 9819 m3/ S, in the mouth area - 11 400 m3/from. According to the peculiarities of the valley, the river is divided into three main sections: the upper Amur (up to the mouth of the Zeya River, 883 kilometers), the current speed of 5,3 km / h, the average Amur (from the mouth of the Zeya River to the mouth of the Ussuri River, 975 kilometers), the current speed of 5,5 km / H and the lower Amur (from the mouth of the Ussuri River to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, 966 kilometers), the current speed is 4,2 km / h. The most important feature of the Amur hydrological regime is significant fluctuations in the water level, caused almost exclusively by summer-autumn monsoon rains, which constitute up to 75% of annual runoff. Fluctuations in the level of the river bed relative to the intergeneration are from 10-15 meters in the upper and middle and up to 6-8 in the lower Cupid. At the same time, during the most severe downpours, spills on the middle and lower Amur can reach 10-25 kilometers and stay up to 70 days. After the construction of waterworks on the main tributaries of Zeya, Bureya and Sungari, summer-autumn floods on the river are less pronounced and in the lower reaches of the river the level changes are 3-4 m.Fauna
The animal and plant world of the Amur basin is diverse. There are more than 5000 species of vascular plants, about 400 species of birds, more than 70 species of mammals, including the Amur tiger. In the basin of the great river, there are more than 130 species of freshwater fish. It is here that the largest sturgeon of the world, the endemic of the Amur, Kaluga, whose weight can exceed a ton, still meets.