The Yenisei River
The Yenisei River is a river in Siberia, one of the greatest rivers in the world and Russia. Falls into Kara Sea The Arctic Ocean.Geographical position
One of the largest rivers in the world: the length of the river from the junction of the Great Yenisei and the Small Yenisei - 3487 km, from the sources of the Small Yenisei - 4287 km, from the sources of the Great Yenisei - 4092 (4123) km. Length of the waterway: Ider - Selenga - Lake Baikal - Angara - The Yenisei is 5075 km. By the area of the basin (2580 thousand km2) Yenisei takes 2 place among the rivers of Russia (after Obi) And 7 place among the rivers of the world. The Yenisei basin is characterized by a sharp asymmetry: its right-bank part is 5,6 times higher than the left-bank part.
Yenisei is the border between Western and Eastern Siberia. The left bank of the Yenisei finishes the great West Siberian plains, and the right bank represents the kingdom of the mountain taiga. From the Sayans to the Arctic Ocean, the Yenisei passes through all the climatic zones of Siberia. In its upper reaches live camels, in the lower reaches - polar bears. Actually, the Yenisei begins in the city of Kyzyl at the confluence of the Great Yenisei and the Small Yenisei. During the first 188 km, the Yenisei flows under the name of the Upper Yenisei (Ulug-Khem), within the northern side of the Tuva Basin in the west, the river is broken up into sleeves, the river bed is replete with rips, the width varies from 100 to 650 m; The depths on the tracks are four to twelve meters, on the ruts no more than one meter. From Shagonar begins Sayano-Shushenskoe reservoir, formed by the dam of Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP. Having taken the left river Khemchik, Yenisei turns north and for 290 km breaks through the mountains Of the Western Sayan And the Minusinsk hollow. After the crossing of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station, a small Main reservoir begins, which ends at the Main hydroelectric station.
After the confluence of the left tributary of the Abakan River, the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir (length 360 km) begins, formed by the dam of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station near the town of Divnogorsk, at the intersection of the Yenisei spurs East Sayan, The width of the valley here is five km, the riverbed is more than 500 meters. Between Krasnoyarsk and the mouth of the Angara the Yenisei valley again expands, the river loses its mountain character, but there are still submarine ridges in the channel - the continuation of the spurs of the Yenisei Ridge. Below the confluence of the Angara, the nature of the valley and the channel of the Yenisei changes dramatically. The right bank remains mountainous, the left bank becomes low, flood plain. The width of the Yenisei valley at the mouth of the Lower Tunguska is about 40 km, near Dudinka and Ust-Port up to 150 km, the channel is 2500-5000 m; The minimum depths of the entire lower Yenisey range from 5 to 8,5 m. Below Dudinka, the prevailing depths are 20-25 m, the channel is broken up into sleeves, the islands reach a length of 20 km. From the mouth of the river Kureyka, where tidal fluctuations in the level are already felt, the mouth of the Yenisei begins. The mouth of Sape Cape Karga is taken for a wellhead. Below the village of Ust-Port, the Yenisei Delta itself begins. By the Brekhov Islands the channel of the Yenisei is divided into many channels, of which four main branches are distinguished: the Okhotsk Yenisei, the Kamenny Yenisei, the Great Yenisei and the Small Yenisei; The total width of the channel is 50 km. Below the Yenisei flows in the same channel, in the "throat", forming the Yenisei Gulf of the Kara Sea.
Hydrology of the river
Yenisei is a type of mixed-food river with a predominance of snow. The share of the latter is slightly less than 50%, rainfall 36-38%, underground in the upper reaches to 16%, to the lower reaches it decreases. Freezing of the Yenisei begins in the lower reaches (early October). For the Yenisey are characterized by intense formation of in-water ice, autumn ice drift. Ledostav in the lower reaches from the end of October, in mid-November in the middle reaches both in Krasnoyarsk and at the end of November and December in the mountainous part. On separate sites in a channel there are powerful naledi. For the most part of the Yenisey is characterized by an extended spring flood and summer floods, in winter a sharp reduction in runoff (but the levels fall slowly because of the development of the zealots). The upper reaches are characterized by an extended spring-summer high water. The flood on the Yenisei begins in May, sometimes in April, on the middle Yenisei a little earlier than on the upper, on the lower in mid-May-early June. Spring ice drift is accompanied by congestion. The swing of the level of the Yenisei in the upper reaches of 5-7 m in the extensions and 15-16 m in the constrictions, in the lower course it is larger (28 m at Kureyka), to the mouth decreases (11,7 m near Ust-Port). By the amount of flow (624 km3) The Yenisei occupies 1 place among the rivers of Russia. Average water discharge in the mouth of 19 800 m3/ S, the maximum flow for Igarka 154 000 m3/from.
Yenisei is the most important waterway of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Regular navigation - from Sayanogorsk to the mouth (3013 km). The main cargo flows go from Krasnoyarsk to Dudinka. Main ports and piers: Abakan, Krasnoyarsk, Strelka, Maklakovo, Yeniseisk, Turukhansk, Igarka, Ust-Port. Sea ships are going up to Igarka. For wiring of vessels from the lower tail of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir to the upper, a unique ship-lift was built. In the Republic of Tuva on the Yenisei local shipping (the main jetty of Kyzyl). Hydroelectric power plants (downstream location): Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP, Mainskaya HPP, Krasnoyarsk HPP. On the Yenisei, rafting is carried out in rafts. At the end of the XIX century, the Ob-Yenisei Canal was built, connecting the Ob with the Yenisei. Currently, the channel is not used and abandoned.