Verkhoyansky Range, a mountainous country in the North-Worstok of Yakutia. It is formed by numerous mountain ranges, massifs and troughs separating them. On the Verkhoyansky ridge is the watershed Lena With Jana and Omoloy. It stretches for 1200 km from the Lena delta to the Tompo River (right tributary Aldan), Forming a convex arc on the South-Zapod in width from 100 to 250 km. Southeastern Continuation The Verkhoyansk Range is called the Sette-Daban Ridge, which is distinguished by a different relief and geological structure. The northern end is formed by the Tuora-Sis and Kharaulakh ranges with a height of less than 1000-1250 m. The meridional part of the mountainous country Verkhoyansky Range - Orulgan Range - is formed by the highest ridges - 2100-2300 m (highest point 2389 m). From the Orulgan Range in the East, the narrow and long ridge Kular branches up to an altitude of up to 1300 m. On the latitudinal stretch of the Verkhoyansk Range, the heights of the mountain peaks exceed 2000 m. The saddles in most of the mountainous country lie at altitudes of 1300-1500 m. The valleys of the rivers of the western and southern slopes Deep, with traces of glacial processing, and at their exits to the plain there are amphitheaters of terminal moraines. The crests of ridges often have sharp alpine forms of relief. On the tops of ridges and massifs there are significant areas of ancient aligned relief, better preserved in the basin of Yana. In tectonic terms, the Verkhoyansk Range is an anticlinorium composed of siltstones, sandstones, slates, and less often limestones (the Verkhoyansk complex). In places, sedimentary rocks are broken by dykes of diabases, and also by granite intrusions, with which gold and tin deposits are associated.
The climate is cold, sharply continental. During a prolonged winter, temperature inversions are characteristic, especially sharp in the foothills, in valleys and large river valleys. The average temperature in January is -36, -38 ° С. Summer is short, in the South in the valleys is relatively warm (average July temperature is 12-14 ° C). In summer, there is almost an annual amount of precipitation, the largest number - up to 600 mm per year - on the western slopes of Orulgan. Perennial frozen rocks are widespread everywhere, which is associated with the formation of ice. On the tops of the highest ridges is a cold arctic desert. Lower along the slopes on rubble and loamy soils, there appears a pitiful mountain-tundra vegetation, which is replaced even further by thickets of cedar elfin, creeping birch, shrub alder and polar willow. In the South, the lower parts of the slopes of the mountains up to a height of 800-1200 m are covered with sparse larch forests. On the slopes of the southern exposition numerous steppe sites are numerous. On alluvial podzolized soils of the bottoms of valleys of large rivers, along with larch forests, there are forests formed by pine and birch, occasionally spruce, scented poplar groves, and shrub thickets.
Verkhoyansk Range - in the Yakut region, is the spur of the Stanovoi Range, from which, separating under 64 ° 30 's. Wide, goes initially to the west, and then, turning from the mouth of the Aldan to the GCC, gradually falling, merges with the northern tundra. Its name was given to this ridge from the beginning on its northern slope. Yana. B. The ridge and its spurs serve as a watershed pp. Aldan, Lena, Indigirki и Kolyma With their tributaries. The height of the most outstanding peaks of the Verkhoyansk Range is in 1430 m (5400 ft.); The pass itself through it along the Verkhoyansk tract is defined in 1220 m (4700 ft.), Is clad in cliffs in 210 m (700 ft.) Heights. The ascent to the pass from the south is difficult due to its steepness, the protrusions of large stones on a path that has no more than a yard of width and winds over the precipice; At the top of the pass there is a playground only in 20 sq. Km. Arshin, followed by a descent to the north, less steep than climbing the ridge from the south. Although the ridge does not reach the limits of eternal snow anywhere, but in the upper reaches of the rivers it often occurs tarynis, that is, very large layers of ice in the river beds that do not disappear during the summer; These tarins, extending in length to 2 - 3 verst, consist of numerous layers of transparent ice, among which the river leads many paths. Several spurs are separated from the ridge, of which the main, Tas-Hayakhtakh, goes to S.V. And serves as a watershed between Yana and Indigirka; Another, Tas-Tabalah, is sent to the CER between pp. Indigirka and Alazeya, its final branch is called the Alazey Mountains, serving as a watershed of the Kolyma and Alazeyi rivers. From the mouth of the Aldan River, the Verkhoyansk Range, extending over the SHA, forms the watershed of Yana and Lena; And its northern spurs reach partly to the sea coast, bearing the name of Oruglan. The branch of this ridge, which lies to the east from the villages. Bulun, known as the Kharaulakh Mountains; Falling to the delta of the Lena, it is lost in the tundra. All these mountain spurs are colder and lower than the V. ridge and near the Arctic Sea end in insignificant hills. B. The ridge represents the distribution boundary of some tree species that do not occur more on its northern slopes, such as pine, spruce, mountain ash and some others.
The geognostic structure of the ridge is monotonous: the southwestern slopes consist of sandstones and shaly clay with intercalations of coal and plant remains; Sandstone and argillaceous shale with carbonaceous sediments predominate on the northeastern slope. Between the fossils found in the Verkhoyansk Range, the shells of Monotis Salinaria and others proved to be identical to the Svalbard Triassic and belong to the Mesozoic area, which is quite widespread in the north of Siberia. Crystalline rocks occur only in the very watershed of the ridge and consist of granites and feldspar porphyries that have lifted the ridge. From mineral riches of the ridge it is known to find silver lead ores along the river. Echii, which flows into Dulgal. The first news of the finding of silver ore on the river. Yundybalu refers to 1748. Here, from 1765 to 1775, development was carried out at a time, and although these ores proved to be rich in silver content, but because of the remoteness and lack of local communities and lack of forest, their development was extremely difficult and therefore abandoned. The Alazey spurs of the Verkhoyansk Range are replete with native iron.