Reindeer (in North America - caribou) - belongs to the family of deer suborder ruminants, the only representative of the genus Reindeer (Rangifer), cloven-hoofed mammal of the deer family. Lives in the northern part of Eurasia and North America. It does not only eat grass and lichens, but also small mammals and birds. In Eurasia, the reindeer is domesticated and is an important source of food and materials for many polar peoples. Among the peoples of the North, the wild reindeer is called sokzhoy.
Features of biology
The reindeer is a migratory species. Due to permanent migrations, the lichen cover is not completely destroyed and has time to recover. 90% of food for them are lichens, so they sense the yagel (the staple food) even under a layer of snow. Lichen substances obtained with food, save from intestinal parasites. Wide hooves allow you to navigate through loose snow and dig it in search of food. I thirst for this deer 9 months of the year, it quenches with snow. Wool is warm with a thick undercoat. Protruding hair length 1-2,5 see Hairs hollow for better thermal insulation, help also to stay afloat when wading rivers. Horns are found in males and females. Female horns are needed in order to drive away competitors from the food found, and are discarded when the deer appear. People domesticated reindeer, isolating part of the herd of wild animals. Domestic reindeer live on semi-grazing, and from wild animals differ in that they are used to people and in case of danger they do not scatter to the sides, but come together, hoping for protection of people. From deer people get milk, meat, wool, horns, bones, from a person deer needs only salt.
There are several subspecies of reindeer:
The pantas (neocosthenye horns) of deer are known in folk medicine due to their healing properties. The extract extracted from them is used in pharmacology as a general tonic and adaptogenic drug. In Russia, the extract of reindeer antlers in 1986 was registered under the trademark "Rantarin". This drug can be used as part of complex therapy with increased fatigability, asthenic conditions, neurasthenia, arterial hypotension, neuroses, functional disorders of the genital area, increased drowsiness, hangover syndrome.